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What is the Black Death, what’s happening in Madagascar, what are the symptoms of bubonic plague and when was The Great Plague of London?

THE Black Death, one of the most devastating pandemics in human history, reduced entire civilisations to their knees during the last major outbreak. Earlier this year it was confirmed the plague has hit America, and an ongoing outbreak in Madagascar has infected thousands of people. Here’s the lowdown. What is plague? Plague is an infectious […]

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THE Black Death, one of the most devastating pandemics in human history, reduced entire civilisations to their knees during the last major outbreak.

Earlier this year it was confirmed the plague has hit America, and an ongoing outbreak in Madagascar has infected thousands of people. Here’s the lowdown.

The Black Death often conjures up chilling images of masked plague doctors, who would stuff fresh herbs and spices in their ‘beaks’ to deal with the smell
Getty - Contributor

What is plague?

Plague is an infectious disease caused by bacteria usually found in small mammals and their fleas.

It has an extremely high fatality rate and is very infectious, although it can be treated by antibiotics if it’s caught early.

There are three forms of plague infection: pneumoic plague, septicaemic plague and bubonic plague, the most common form.

Bubonic plague was known as the Black Death in medieval Europe, where an outbreak brought entire civilisations to their knees and decimated the world’s population.

Black Death is spread through the bite of infected fleas, whereas pneumonic plague, the most contagious form, develops after a bubonic infection.

Pneumonic infections can then be spread through the air, while septicaemic plague occurs when infection spreads through the bloodstream.

Plague is a bacterial disease which swept through medieval Europe and has cropped up occasionally in the centuries since
Custom Medical Stock Photo - Getty

When was the Black Death?

The Black Death, a widespread bubonic plague infection, peaked in Europe between 1346 and 1353.

It was one of the most devastating pandemics in human history, leaving an estimated 75 – 200 million people dead in Eurasia.

This fatality rate represents a staggering 30-60 per cent of the European population at the time.

After the plague, society experienced a series of marked changes, including a rise in religious fanaticism.

Lacking the medical knowledge to understand the pandemic, some groups blamed Jews and lepers for the outbreak – resulting in mass killings throughout Europe.

It took around 300 years for global populations to return to pre-plague levels after the outbreak.

The Black Death decimated the population of Europe when it swept through the continent in the 1300s
Alamy

What are plague symptoms?

The World Health Organisation describes plague symptoms as “flu like”, with one to seven days between incubation and the symptoms emerging.

Sufferers are likely to have painful lymph nodes, chills, fever, headaches, weakness and fatigue.

In bubonic sufferers, these inflamed lymph nodes may end up turning into pus-filled open sores.

Bubonic plague is fatal in 30-60 per cent of cases, while the pneumonic kind is always fatal, if left untreated.

Bubonic plague, the most common form, is spread via the bites of infected fleas
Oxford Scientific RM - Getty

How is plague spread?

The three different types of plague all refer to different ways the disease can be spread.

In bubonic infections, plague-causing bacteria can be transmitted between animals and fleas, with infected fleas then passing the disease on to people through bites.

Infected people may then develop pneumonic plague once their bubonic infection becomes advanced.

Lung-based pneumonic plague can then sometimes be transmitted through the air between sufferers.

Following a pneumonic or bubonic infection, people can then develop septicaemic plague, which occurs when the infection spreads through the bloodstream.

What has happened in Madagascar?

In October health officials warned that “no one is safe” from a deadly outbreak of Black Death on the holiday island of Madagascar which has now infected more than 2,000 people.

They say the disease has now become much more contagious because it is now being transmitted from person-to-person through the air – as well as from animals to humans through infected flea bites.

The death toll from the disease has climbed well beyond 150, with the UK Government warning British tourists to stay away from plague-hit areas and neighbouring countries put on alert.

And a scientist has warned that the nation’s healthcare system will be unable to cope if the crisis continues, with medical staff among those being struck down.

While cases of bubonic plague occur in Madagascar nearly every year, this years epidemic is “much more dangerous”, according to one expert.

The disease remains endemic in rural parts of the African island but the rise in the pneumonic version of the illness has sparked particular concern.

The World Health Organisation said that this year, plague arrived earlier than expected, and the infection is also spreading in urban centres and in areas that until now had not been affected.

What happened in the Great Plague of London?

The Great Plague of London struck the city in 1665 and lasted well into 1666 and was the last major outbreak to hit England.

Across Europe, the plague was endemic in major cities, periodically erupting in pockets across the continent for centuries.

But the outbreak of 1665 was of a proportion far greater than had been seen for some time.

It is not known where the plague that hit London originated from but it is thought most likely to have come across on a Dutch ship.

While deaths began in late 1664 they struck in earnest at the start of 1665 and were rampant by the summer, causing the King to flee the city in July.

At its height the disease was claiming 7,000 lives a week, according to conservative measurements.

The outbreak did not fully come to an end until September 1666, coincidentally as the city was struck by another tragedy, The Great Fire.

Some believed that this is what caused the end to the plague but others argue that it had already virtually died out by the time it struck.

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Explainers

Copa Libertadores final: Gremio vs Lanus live stream, kick-off time and TV channel for the first leg

GREMIO take on Lanus as they look to win the Copa Libertadores for the first time since 1995. The Brazilians have made it to their first final in ten years after beating Barcelona, of Ecuador, 3-1 on aggregate in the semi-final. A 3-0 win in Guayaquil was enough to put Renato Gaucho’s side out of […]

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GREMIO take on Lanus as they look to win the Copa Libertadores for the first time since 1995.

The Brazilians have made it to their first final in ten years after beating Barcelona, of Ecuador, 3-1 on aggregate in the semi-final.

Gremio host Lanus as they look to win the Copa Libertadores for the first time since 1995
AFP or licensors

A 3-0 win in Guayaquil was enough to put Renato Gaucho’s side out of site and ensure a 1-0 loss at home in the second leg was purely academic.

Argentines Lanus made it to their first ever final in more dramatic fashion, losing 1-0 away to River Plate and then finding themselves 2-0 down at home after 23 minutes of the second leg.

But Jorge Almiron’s side then scored four goals without reply to sensationally secure their place in the final.

When is Gremio vs Lanus?

Gremio host Lanus on Wednesday, November 22.

The match will kick off at 11.45pm GMT.

That’s 9.45pm in Porto Alegre and 8.45pm in Buenos Aires.

It will take place at the Arena do Gremio.

What TV channel is Gremio vs Lanus on?

Gremio vs Lanus will not be on television in the UK.

But you can keep up to date with the biggest stories from the match on SunSport.

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Cricket

Ashes 2017 first Test: What time does Australia vs England start tonight and what TV channel is it on?

JOE ROOT has a chance to retain the Ashes for England when they begin this year’s series in Brisbane. Alistair Cook’s England stormed to a 3-2 victory in 2015, and will be looking to retain the coveted trophy this year under new captain Root. FOLLOW ALL OF THE ACTION WITH OUR LIVE BLOG When is […]

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JOE ROOT has a chance to retain the Ashes for England when they begin this year’s series in Brisbane.

Alistair Cook’s England stormed to a 3-2 victory in 2015, and will be looking to retain the coveted trophy this year under new captain Root.

Spinner Moeen Ali in a warm-up game against Australia Cricket XI
AFP or licensors

When is the 2017-18 Ashes first test?

The series is currently in the practice stage, with the real action kicking off next week.

The opening Test will start next Thursday, November 23 at 12am GMT in the UK.

That Test concludes the following Monday, November 27.

Here is the full test schedule:

England's Ashes Test schedule

Nov 23-27 First Test (Brisbane) – midnight
Dec 2-6 Second Test (Adelaide) – 4am
Dec 14-18 Third Test (Perth) – 2.30am
Dec 26-30 Fourth Test (Melbourne) – 11.30pm (Xmas Day)
Jan 4-8 Fifth Test (Sydney) – 11.30pm (Jan 3 GMT)

Times in GMT

Where can I watch the 2017-18 Ashes?

For the first time the Ashes are being shown exclusively on BT Sport.

BT secured the rights after Sky Sports had held them for years.

Coverage of all the Tests and ODIs will be live on British TV.

The Ashes 2017 LIVE Updates as England take on Australia Down Under

Where can I see the highlights of the Ashes?

Highlights of the 2017-18 series will be shown for FREE.

After every day’s play, the best bits will be available to watch on BTSport.com and the BT Sport app.

At 7pm after game day, highlights are uploaded for all to watch.

If you’ve missed out from past days, all action from the series is on BT’s Ashes hub.

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Celebrity

Who is Princess Tiaamii? Katie Price and Peter Andre’s daughter who is regularly in the headlines

DAUGHTER of model Katie Price and pop star Peter Andre, Princess Tiaamii was always going to end up making headlines one way or the other. From appearing on Loose Women and her mum’s reality shows to causing a stir on Instagram here’s everything you need to know about Katie Price’s eldest daughter… Who is Princess Tiaamii […]

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DAUGHTER of model Katie Price and pop star Peter Andre, Princess Tiaamii was always going to end up making headlines one way or the other.

From appearing on Loose Women and her mum’s reality shows to causing a stir on Instagram here’s everything you need to know about Katie Price’s eldest daughter…

Princess Tiaamii is the daughter of Katie Price and Peter Andre
Rex Features

Who is Princess Tiaamii and how old is she?

Princess Tiaamii is the daughter of Katie Price and Peter Andre.

Born June 29 2007, Princess is the couple’s eldest daughter and is now aged 10.

She was born two years after her brother Junior, whose father is also Peter Andre.

Katie split from Princess’ dad in 2009 and since then married Alex Reid and is currently married to Kieran Hayler.

Princess also has half siblings Harvey (from mum Katie’s romance with Dwight York), Bunny and Jett (from Katie’s current marriage to Kieran) and Theodore and Amelia (her dad Peter’s kids with new wife Emily).

Princess is 10 years old and Katie’s eldest daughter

Why is she called Princess Tiaamii?

Princess got her unusual name because dad Peter wanted her to be named after both his and Katie’s mums – Thea and Amy, so he came up with the interesting combination.

Pete revealed at the time: “Katie always loved the name Princess, but everyone thought it was a bit over the top.

“I loved it too but I wanted to name her after both our mums.Then I just woke up one morning and thought, I know!

“We’ll just put them together! If people don’t like it, that’s up to them.”

Her full name is Princess Tiaamii Crystal Esther Andre.

Princess’ dad Peter Andre came up with Tiaamii for her
Rex Features

Why has Princess Tiaamii been at the centre of Instagram controversy?

Over the years Princess’ mum Katie has come under fire for posting pictures of her on social media showing her pouting and wearing make-up.

Back in 2015 she caused a furore by sharing a picture of the youngster wearing lashings of mascara and pouting her lips which were covered in lip gloss.

At the time Princess hit back at critics herself in a clip posted online by her mum, saying: “By the way, I wanna do my make-up, not my mum, I do. And anyway it’s none of your beeswax, so oosh!”

In early 2017 her mum Katie divided opinion again by sharing a picture of her posing in her bikini on holiday.

While many complimented the beautiful youngster, others believed the images were overly sexy for a child.

Katie posted a series of pictures of Princess in her bikini which caused controversy
Instagram/ Katie Price

Katie later defended her decision – saying that Princess doesn’t even know what ‘sexy’ is.

She said: “If I said to Princess don’t pose like that it’s too sexy – she doesn’t know what sexy is.

“She just watched the best!…  The people who were saying she looked too sexy, they looking at her thinking she looks sexy…

“They should take a look at themselves and wonder why they are saying she looks sexy.”

Katie again came under fire in July 2017 after posting a video of Princess and Junior to Instagram showing them promoting a drinks range.

At the end of 2016, Princess briefly had her own Instagram account after begging her mother for one.

The decision to allow her was wildly criticised with critics claiming that she was placing them in danger from online predators, and forcing them to grow up too fast. The account disappeared just a few weeks later.

This image of Princess in 2015 wearing make-up sparked debate
Social Media

Has Princess Tiaamii appeared on TV shows?

It is no secret that Princess is keen to follow in her famous parents’ footsteps.

She has already appeared on TV with their mum and dad on their numerous reality show, and most recently starred on Katie’s new TLC show Katie Price’s Pony Club.

Princess has also made a few appearances on Loose Women, alongside brother Junior.

The Sun’s Bizarre Column has also reported how Junior and Princess are in discussions to become the faces of McDonald’s.

A source revealed how the pair being offered big bucks to represent the fast-food chain’s world-famous Happy Meals.

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